Press is freedom is not expressly mentioned under section 39 of the 1999 constitution. Are we journalist covered under Freedom of Expression?

Though the word press is not expressly mentioned in the grant of the freedom of expression, but is written in the marginal notes which has been said not to form part of the provisions, but are merely for convenience of reference[1].  Such right without extension to freedom of the Press would however be meaningless.

The importance of the press is further emphasized under the provisions of section 22 of the Constitution which provides:


The press, radio, television and other agencies of the mass media shall at all times be free to uphold the fundamental objectives contained in this chapter and uphold the responsibility and accountability of the government to the people.


Kindly note that the scope of freedom of expression covers new media such as Blogging/ online radio/ online Tv among other E-platform that hold opinion, receive and impart ideas and information.

Through the press, corruption, abuse of office and other official misconduct can be publicly exposed, and this may in itself serve as a deterrent against official misconduct.

[1] Adewole v. Jakande (1981) 1 NCLR 262; See Section 3 of the Interpretation Act. (1964) (No.1)