• Introduction

This right dey very important. Na right among some rights don tey. This right dey cause disagreement well well all over the world if pesin no handle am with care.

Section 38 for our constitution talk sey:

Na every pesin get right ontop wetin he think and beleief sey na him god. Pesin also get right to change religion or belief. If pesin dey among plenty people for him area or school, e also get right to dey preach im religion through praises (music), teaching, and the way wey e dey do takeand observance im relegion.

This right wey give person freedom on top wetin he belief no mean sey weting the pesin believe must to be based on a particular religion. An atheist or free-thinker fit come under this head.[1]


[1] Kehinde M. Mowoe Constitutional Law in Nigeria 2008, Malthouse Law Book p. 427

  • Introduction

Na two important thing right to privacy give us. The first one na about pesin right on which kind information he wan make people get about am. Second one na about kain independence, or freedom wey person get to do or make he no things if he like.[1]

Section 37 of our Constitution come sey;


All Nigerians get right for privacy for dem house, letters, wetin dem dey talk for phone, wetin dem dey type for telegraphic and this right dey protected


If you no be Naija pesin, you come from another country dey live for obodo Nigeria, you fit claim right to privacy but dat one go sweet you better under dem international laws wey Nigeria don put hand sign.

[1] Johnny H. Killian & Leland E. Beck, The Constitution of the United States of America, Analysis and Interpretation (United States Government Printing Office, Washington 1981) p. 1583-3

Police get power to search pesin for Nigeria[1]. The law wey we dey call Police Act talk sey police officer fit detain and search pesin if he believe in a reasonable way sey the suspect dey carry anything wey he believe sey the pesin thief am or carry am in a way wey law no gree.

If police search pesin, the reasonable wey to do am as we dey talk na the same wey court go look weda the action of the police when he dey arrest pesin dey reasonable. Infact how dem dey take no reasonable arrest na tru objective test wey mean sey weda a good man wey dey reasonable go fit do am the wey police do.[2]

If police arrest pesin, the police fit search am. The police officer fit remove anything wey he found ontop the accuse but dem police no suppose remove him clothes.[3]

Make we talk am sey if dem arrest pesin and put am for custody in the wey law talk am, dem fit carry out medical test  ontop am if the test go show evidence sey na true true the pesin don commit offence[4]. This one fit work for people wey dey carry someting inside body like cocaine and heroin.

The law give dem Officers power make dem search pesin wey dem believe sey he dey carry market enter country where he suppose pay duty money or he dey avoid payment, or he dey carry things wey our laws no gree if the pesin dey for custom area.[5]

[1]Section 25 of the Police Act 1967

[2]– Jackson v. Omorokuna (1981) 1 NCR 283; and Commissioner of Police v. Obolo (1989) 5 NWLR (Pt. 20) 130.

[3]section 6(1) of Criminal Procedure Act and section 44(2) of Criminal Procedure Code.

[4]section 6(6) of Criminal Procedure Act and section 127 of Criminal Procedure Code

[5]Section 150 of Customs and Excise Management Act 1958

People don ask us this question plenty time for our #KnowYourRightsNigeria radio show wey we do every week for UNILAG 103.1 FM. The law talk sey na only woman must search another woman[1] and the search self suppose by a one wey dey decent[2].  We suppose let you know sey wetin we dey talk here na woman body o. a man fit search a woman bag, purse and other things wey she carry. No law talk sey a woman no fit search a man o but in practice, na man dey search man but the search suppose dey decent.

[1]section 6(2) of Criminal Procedure Act and section 44(3) of Criminal Procedure Code (S.150(1)(b)(ii) Customs and Excise Management Act 1958),

[2]section 82 of Criminal Procedure Code

Where police arrest or search pesin and no come release everything wey dem collect from am after dem don confirm sey he no get case to answer, the police don dey fight fight for im personal interest against the interest of the state. If pesin be innocent and dem don confirm am, everything wey dem sieze from him dem must to return to am.[1]

[1] Kehinde M. Mowoe, Constitutional law in Nigeria 2008, Malthouse law books p. 408/409

If dem wan search your house, the law be sey dem must to bring search warrant before dem fit search your premises. Na few occasion dem fit no need search warrant. This na becos the law self dey protect our home. If dem wan search pesin house, police must obtain search warrant. If pesin wey dem police wan arrest dey hide for inside one pesin house, dem police fit search the house without warrant to arrest the pesin.[1]

This search warrant wey we dey talk, Magistrate fit issue am if e dey satisfy with information wey dem write on oath wey dey reasonable to believe sey dem dey use building, ship, carriage, place to dey commit crime[2].

Pesin wey dey execute the search warrant fit sieze anything wey dem dey use for crime and carry am go show Magistrate wey issue the warrant or another Magistarate so that dem go fit do take legal action ontop the mata. The search warrant fit direct self sey make dem arrest people wey dem find inside for premises wey dem dey search.[3]

Oga for police fit issue warrant arrest too but na only if items wey dem wan search na stolen property. If for the premise wey dem wan search, dem come find pesin wey just return from jail within 12 months for offence like he dey receive stolen goods, he dey habour thieves, he dey do fraud or commit offence wey fit carry person go prison – dem must to allow officer wey carry the warrant into the premises to search am. If the officer sieze property inside the premises wey he search, he fit arrest the pesin wey occupy the premises and bring am before Magistrate to come explain how the goods take dey for im prmise. Where dem no come allow the officer make he enter the premise, the law permit the person wey dey execute the warrant to break into and enter the premises make e fit carry out the search warrant.[4]

Again, a police fit break out of the premises after he don execute the warrant[5]. The persin wey dey execute the search warrant fit search any pesin wey dey the premises if he believe reasonably belief sey the pesin dey carry waterver he dey searched for[6].

[1]section 7 of CPA and section 34 of CPC.

[2]section 107(1) of CPA

[3]section 107 of CPA and section 74 of CPC.

[4]section 112 and 7(2) of CPA.

[5]section 8 of CPA

[6]– section 112(3) of CPA and section 81(1) of CPC.

On this kind mata, section 78(1) for Criminal Procedure Code talk sey if dem one search premises, dem must do am in the presence of two respected neighbors wey the person wey dem wan search him call by himself. But court fit no include make neighbour witness the search if the situation no require witnesses.

Police officer fit and e fit no use warrant to search things like vehicle, ship, and an aircraft but nature of wetin dem dey search go determine if dem go use warrant or not.

Custom officers dem get power to search any vehicle, ship or aircraft without warrant if dem reasonably belief suspect dey use am carry goods wey dem supposes sieze.[1]

A police officer fit conduct a search ontop a thing wey he reasonably belief sey contain illegal thing even if e no get search warrant because the officer get duty make he no allow crime happen[2].

The police power to dey mount road block and dey do stop and search, and the power to detain and search vehicle wey dem reasonably suspect sey carry unlawful thing dey for Section 25 of the Police Act. This power no sey make dem dey extort money from motorist o.

[1]section 149 of the Customs and Excise Management Act

[2]section 4 of the Police Act

The law sey if somebody go lie and complain against another wey come make the police go search a premise with search warrant, pesin wey complain wrongly go enter gbege.

Such person wey go lie fit enter trouble becos he take bad belle go lie against another pesin. In one case of Balogun v. Amubikahu[1], the Supreme Court talk sey even for the matter, na police go arrest, detain and prosecute somebody, the real pesin wey dey liable and face the the trouble na pesin wey go take bad belle go lie criminally wey come make police react.

[1](1989) 3 NWLR (Pt. 107) 18