My right to property (Introduction)

The right sey you fit own property wey dey move and the one wey no dey move. Propert wey no dey move here na land. Make you no forget sey on land mata, pesin wey own land na im get obeject wey dey ontop am and under am like mineral or vegetation.

Section 43 and 44 for our constitution na dem provide for our right to oen property for Nigeria.

Section 43 talk sey:

 

As constitution take talk am, every citizen of Nigeria get right to acquire and own immovable property anywhere for Nigeria.

 

If a pesin come satisfy all requirements to own or sell property for Nigeria, no body go refuse am and if dem refuse am, the pesin fit im right.

Pesin wan sell dem family and community land for me o. Abeg, yarn me wetin I suppose know make I no enter gobe?

Traditionallyfor Nigeria, land dey belong to a community or family before dem go share am among members of the family wey own the land.

If a member of such family wan sll land to you, do inestigation before you go put money down. Make sure sey you carry your lawyer along.

If na family get the land, a member of the family not get powet to sell am to you becos the title (ownership) wey you go get no dey legal. Your lawyer go advise you sey make you see the head of the family and any other principal member for that family. Na dem get power to transfer good title to you if na family land you wan buy wey dem go sign the land document. If a member go sell family land to you and you no get the consent of the head and a principal member of the family, you no get a good title.

Na this same principle dey applicable to community land. The head and a principal member of the community na dem fit transfer title you and na dem must sign for and on behalf of the community.

 

Govment fit collect my property from me?

If Govment dem wan takeover pesin property, dem must do am as law take talk am

Section 44(1) for our constitution talk sey:

 

No pesin go take over somebody property or interest in property wey dey move or no move for anywhere for Nigeria except in the way wey the law explain.

  • Dem go pay the pesincompesation immediately; and
  • Dem go allow the owner to accessthe property so that e go fit determine his interest in the property and the amount wey dem go pay am to a court of law or tribunal or body wey fit look into the matter make dem no cheat am.

 

Wetin that provision dey talk be sey the right and interest of pesin wey get property dey protected if govment want take over the property for the good of the public as law take talk am and dem go pay the owner of the property wetin dem dey call compensation.

Land Use Act don put control and control and management of land for governor of a state, so right of occupancy wey wey dey get on land govnor fit revoke am on behalf of the state for the good of general public.

But pesin fit loose that right to the property if;

  • Pesin go acquire the propertyfor manner wey Land Use Act not gree or he get am in a way we no follow the law ;
  • Where the Govment wan use the property for the general use of the public.

 

The general use of the public wey dem lawyers dey call for public purposes as dem explain am for section 51 of the Land Use Act mean sey that take over of property suppose be:

  • For exclusive Government use for general public use
  • For use by Govment or organization which govment own shares, stocks as dem explain am for Companies and Allied Matters Act;
  • For improvement wey go bring hygienic or clean improvements of any kind;
  • For taking property wey dey contiguous to any part or over land wey dem fit use for the construction of any railway, road or other public work or convenience wey govment wan provide;
  • Dem wen take over the property for development of telecommunications or to provide electricity;
  • Dem wan take over property to dey do mining;
  • Dem wan take over property for rural development or settlement;
  • Dem wan takeover property for economic, industrial or agricultural development; or
  • For educational and other social services.

For example when govment compulsory take over property make dem use am expand cattle market, court sey e dey legal becos no for the benefit of general public.[1]

[1] Sokoto Local Government and Others v. Alhaji Tsoho Amale & Another (2001) 12 WRN 103.

If a Governor go do ojoro collect my property go give him family member, friend or use am, I fit challenge am sey I no gree and collect my property back?

Yes. You fit do this by enforcing your right for court if the Govnor collect you property for himself, family, political Associate and e no come be for the use of the public. For example the court talk am for one case of Ibafon Company Ltd. And Another V. Nigerian Ports Authority PLC and Others[1] sey any land wey dem collect for private business dey illegal.

Before state go collect person property as the law want am, dem must to fulfil the condition wey wey explain so:

  1. Dem must give the oner notice sey dem wan acquire the land[2]. Dem must to serve the notice and the way wey dem go serve am as law talk be sey[3]
  2. Dem deliver the acquisition notice to the pesin wey suppose receive am;
  3. Dem bring the notice or send am thru registered letter/courier to his usual or last know place of residence/address;
  4. If the pesin wey dem wan serve na company or body, dem suppose serve the notice inform of registered letter to the secretary or clerk of the company or body;
  5. Where dem not fit ascertain the name or address of owner of the land dem go do reasonable inquiry, and if dem no find the owner, dem must deliver the notice to to someone wey dey the premise or affixing it or place a copy for a eye-catching/noticeable part of the premises.
  6. As to the way dem go take over the property, dem must to pay adequate compensation sharp sharp and also give pesin wey dey claim compensation right to go appeal for court if e no dey satisfy with amount we dem wan give am.

No forget sey Govnor fit offer another place to compensate pesin wey dem takeover im property for the benefit of the pupblic. Where the value of new place wey dem give am dey higher pass property wey dem collect from am, the persin fit pay the excess to govment  in form of a loan.[4]

 

[1] (2000) 17 WRN 56 at 68 CA

[2] Section 28(6) of the Land Use Act

[3] Section 44 of the Land Use Act

[4] Section 29(4) of the Land Use Act

Helep me o! My land get oil, plenty mineral resources. Govment wan take am o.

Yes. Any land or propertyor territorial waters and exclusive economic zone of Nigeria wey get any minerals, mineral oils and natural gas na federal govment get am automatically. If pesin first buy am, you go need to revert am back to the federal govment if you discover sey such mineral or gas dey. Govment must to pay compensation to you for the land and improvements wey you don do ontop the land[1]

[1] Kehinde M. Mowoe, Constitutional Law in Nigeria 2008, Malthouse Law book at p. 520

Put me tru abeg: I wan buy property. Which five (5) document the property must get?

Anybody wey claim sey e get property suppose show document as evidence.  Five documents wey every property in Nigeria suppose get we go give you. If your property no get any of them, you need go discuss with a real estate consultant or lawyer sharp sharp. The documents na:

  1. Purchase receipt: A purchase receipt na a written acknowledgement sey pesin by property. You fit present am as evidence of ownership or sey you don acquire the property for some situation.
  2. A registered Survey Plan: A Survey Plan na a diagram wey describe the margin and precise dimension of a parcel of land. A surveyor wey be expert who assess and measure land go do am. The survey you go carry go lodge for the Surveyor General’s office for the state where you dey buy the land .
  3. Deed of Assignment: A Deed of Assignment na ogbonge document wey dey show the new legal owner of the property; i.e. dem don transfer property from the buyer to the seller. Na like a contract from the seller to assign the property to the buyer.
  4. Certificate of Occupancy (C of O): The C of O na a justifiable consent from the government sey the property dey your possession. Na land bureau of the state wey the property dey dey issue am.
  5. Approved Building Plan: This one na endorsement to proceed with the construction or reconfiguration of a particular structure in place as dem take approved am. E dey very important make you ensure sey the structure wey dey for the property n aim dey for the building plans.[1]

[1]Written by Ayobayo Babade and Olakunbi of Tope Babade & Co (Real Estate Consultants) as a contribution to #KnowYourRightsNigeria project

 

Wetin be my rights sef as Tenant for Naija?

A  tenancy  na  relationship for which a  party  (the  tenant)  get possession  of  a property  (the  demised  premises)  from  another  party  (the  owner  or  landlord)  for  a  specific period of time after hedon pay money (rent) or for free.

Tenant get rights. Im right be:

  1. Right to a  payment  receipt  and  written  agreement:  The  landlord  under the law must to dey  give  the  tenant  a  written  evidence wey shoe sey he collect money for rent. Again, both of dem suppose state the kind relationship dem want and how the landlor-teanacy relationship go end. A  tenant suppose request  and  obtain  a  tenancy  agreement,  read  am carefully before the teanancy go start.
  2. Right to  peaceful  enjoyment  and  exclusive  possession:  This  one dey important and show the kain possession wey tenant get.  The  landlord suppose give tenant right to dey use the premise make anyother pesin no dey use am except sey landlord wan come check the  property wey no suppose be every hour. Land suppose give Teanant a notice if e wan check the property because n aim right to inspect am. This and modality dem suppose put inside the tenancy agreement.
  3. Right to  a  habitable  premises:  The  property suppose be one wey human being suppose sey liven.  The landlord must to make sure sey the building dey structurally sound. Any structural defects or external damages dem must repair sharp sharp.  E deyillegal make the landlord  go  do  things  wey go make the  building  no dey inhabitable  for  the  tenant  like  removing the roofing sheets or blocking the septic tank.
  4. Freedom from  unlawful  eviction  from  the  property:  A  tenant  dey protected  by  law and dem not fit evict am anyhow by  the  landlord.  If  the  tenancy  go an  end,  the landlord  go give the  tenant  a  valid  “Notice  to Quit”.  If  the  tenant no come go, after Notice  to  Quit,  the  tenant  go get another “7-days notice of owners intention to recover possession”.  After  7 days, tenant no come go, the landlord  get  right  to  take  the  tenant  go  court  and  the  court  wgo  evict am.  The tenant  go also pay  for  the  period  of  time  he  stay put after dem tell am to leave.
  5. Freedom from  unreasonable  increase  in  rent:  The  law  protects  the  tenant  from make landlord dey unreasonably increase rent.  The rent no suppose dey outrageous if dem compare with others around the place.  Again, the law  recognize sey landlorf fit increase where e dey justified but dem must show evidence for the justification.[1]

[1] Written by Ayobayo Babade, Tolulope Olusunmade and Olakunbi Yakub of Tope Babade & Co (Real Estate Consultants) as a contribution to #KnowYourRightsNigeria project

Wetin be my rights sef as Landlord for Naija?

Na landlord get property. After tenancy end, the premises dey go back to the landlord.  People dey own property for many reasons. Some na to get  income  as some dey use am for investment purposedat’s why dem dey let am out to and collect rent. The rights wey landlord get include:

  1. Right to  dey collect  rent:  A  landlord  get right  to  receive  regular  and  periodic  rent  form the  tenant .  e fit collect rent weekly, monthly,  quarterly,  half-yearly  and  annually  as  agreed  by  the  landlord  and  tenant.  However, the  manner  wey dem go dey collect the rent go dey determined by the period  wey dem give to the tenant.
  2. Right to  reasonable  periodic  inspection  of  the  demised  premises:  The  landlord  get right to go dey inspect the property and see how dem dey use im property.  But e suppose give notice to  the  tenant as dem take agree for tenancy agreement.
  3. Right to  lawfully  eject  a  tenant:  A  landlord  get right to eject in a lawful way as dem agree for tenancy agreement or law provide.  To  eject  tenant legally,  the   notices suppose follow the way law take talk am before dem go fit go court if the mata reach dat level. E dey illegal make landlord dey invite thugs or  “Area-boys”  to   ejecting tenant. Dat kind act fit make you comit crime of disrupting public peace and criminal assault dem.
  4. Right to  review  rent:  Landlord  get the  right  to  review  his  rent  upward  ( in  the  face  of  economic  realities  like  economic  meltdown) and  downwards.  Such rent reviews go consider rate  for the same area  make such increase no be to wicked the tenant.
  5. Right to  compensation  from  compulsory  acquisition:  The  governor  of  the  state  through the  Land  Use  Act  wan  compulsorily  acquire  the property for public interest “overriding  public  purposes”,   the  landlord  get right  to compensation  by  the  state  govment  for  the improvements wey e don make on the land.[1]

 

[1] Written by Ayobayo Babade, Tolulope Olusunmade and Olakunbi Yakub of Tope Babade & Co (Real Estate Consultants) as a contribution to #KnowYourRightsNigeria project

My right to freedom from discrimination (Introduction)

  • Introduction

For Naija to fit achieve national co-operation to dey solve problems of economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and for us to dey promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom and make pesin no dey diffrentate from race, sex, language, or religion, n aim make our right to freedom from discrimination must dey guarante.

The universal declaration of human rights[1] support this rights as foundation of freedom, justice and peace for this  world”.[2] Aricle one of the Declaration come talk sey:

Na everybody dem born free and equal for dignity and rights. Dem dey reason and get Conscience and dem suppose act towards one another for spirit of brotherhood.

 

Discrimination na one way to violate pesin rights”[3] and dis don destroy lives and properties.

Section 42 for our 1999 come talk sey:

 

Naija citizen wey come from a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion no go-

  • Dey subjected to disabilities or restrictionsuntop which citizens of Nigeria for other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religion or political opinionsno dey subject to; or
  • Make dem any privilege or advantage wey dem no give other Naija citizen wey come from other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religion or get political opinion.

 

Our constitution come talk again about how important e be make we no dey discriminate against another. Section 15(2) come talk sey “make we encourage national integration but make we no discriminate becos of place of origin, sex, religion, status, ethnic or language association or ties.”

We dey always talk am for Constitutional Rights Awareness and Liberty Initiative sey no body choose where dem born am o. we just grow up come discover sey na one  town, villages, states or name we dey bear. We no suppose hate another pesin bcos he no come from our village or bcos no be our parent born am.. make we no dey discriminate either by action even govment dem no suppose discrminate.

 

[1] 10 December 1948, A.G Re. 217 A(iii), Doc. N.U. A/8/10 (1948)

[2] Kehinde M. Mowoe Constitutional law in Nigeria 2008 Malthouse Law Books . p 499

[3] Gasiokwu M.O.U. ,Human Rights. History Ideology and law, (CA FAB Education books, Jos Nigeria 2003) p. 224

Dem fit do me bad bele bcos I be man or woman, or becos I waka come from one area or tribe?

Any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference becos of sex, colour (albinism) race, town, villages, tribe, ethnic region, geo-political zones just sideline pesin make e no enjoy wetin other Nigerian fit benefit our constitution no gree at all.